Wednesday, 15 August 2012

The Arnolfini Portrait

The Arnolfini Portrait by Jan Van Eyck at the National Gallery, London
This picture is one of the most discussed and analysed paintings in the Western world.
For a long time it was assumed to be a Marriage painting and as such was known as The Arnolfini Marriage. The first reaction to the painting is that she is pregnant. Not so, if you look carefully she is holding an enormous amount of fabric up against herself, thus showing the status and wealth in her clothing. It is also the style of the day. Jan Van Eyck used the same style of dress in several of his paintings.
A detail from Jan van Eyck's Dresden Triptych showing St. Catherine - note the way a large swath of fabric is held firmly above the book she is reading, and how she looks pregnant due to the style of dress.
The couple are identified as Giovanni di Arrigo Arnolfini and his wife Jeanne Cenami. Giovanni was a wealthy silk merchant from Lucca, Italy, but resided in Bruges. 
A chance discovery in the 1990s established that they were married in 1447, but the painting is dated 1434. This has led to much speculation about the portrait. It is now thought by some to be a Memorial painting to a previous wife. However, opinions are still very much split on the painting, and for this reason, I set out my view as to why I think that it is a Memorial painting.
My first reason being that the women wears the white headgear of a married women with her hair securely tucked away. A bride of the period would have had free flowing long hair.
The roundels at the edge of the mirror depict Christ's passion and death. The scenes of the living Christ are on the man's side; the scenes of his death and resurrection are on the woman's. There are two figures reflected in the back of the mirror, one of which is assumed to be that of Jan van Eyck.
Above the mirror van Eyck has left his signature -Jan van Eyck was here 1434 
St. Margaret is the patron saint of childbirth. A dragon is her attribute and she is normally depicted trampling it under foot as here. Her praying figure could also be taken as interceding for the soul of the departed following the women's death during childbirth. 
Immediately above the woman's hand and below there  are carved wooden grosteques, perhaps presaging her death.
The candles have gone out apart from the one on Giovanni's side. A metaphor used in literature interprets this as, he lives on, she is dead. 
The couple have removed their shoes in recognition of the sanctity of the bedchamber, turning it into a holy place. However, one of her shoes sit on a carpet in front of the bed alluding to the fact that she may have died in childbirth.
The oranges on the windowsill and chest may symbolise purity and innocence that reigned in the Garden of Eden before the Fall of Man. They are also a further indication of wealth as oranges were an uncommon sight in Bruges. The cherries on the tree at the window are often considered to symbolise sweetness and are the Fruits of Paradise.
There are other clues I have not mentioned that you could perhaps interpret yourself. The little dog, the rosary hanging on the wall - the brush on a hook just below St. Margaret on the bedpost, the red bed hangings? Just a few thoughts for you to ponder.
Addendum:
Following a comment from Olympia I am now adding the painting Las Meninas by Velázquez. The painting shows a mirror that reflects the upper bodies of the King and Queen. They appear to be placed outside the picture space in a position similar to that of the viewer, although some scholars have speculated that their image is a reflection from the painting Velázquez is shown working on. Olympia comments that Velázquez saw the Arnolfini Portrait when it travelled from Flanders to Spain which may have given him the idea to employ a similar technique to that of Jan van Eyck, viz using the reflection from the mirror.
all images courtesy wikipedia
Following a critique from John Kendal Hopkins, I am pleased to add part of his comment :-
' In the painting Las Meninas by Velázquez, I can assure you, as someone that has taught perspective to architecture students for nearly two decades, there is only one solution. The reflection must be the king and queen in the large vertical canvas. The perspective is very simple and straight forward in this painting, and I am used to teaching reflection and cast shadows of curving shapes or inclined lines "walking" up stairs, etc., all in perspective (and even by freehand)'.

53 comments:

  1. I have seen this painting. I have it in one of my art books. I never read about up about it, but indeed found it fascinating. I always thought that she was pregnant. I still find it hard to believe she was not. ! St. Margaret the patron saint of birth! For me it points to her being pregnant.
    Alas.. like you wrote Rosemry , a polemic painting, and it is indeed.
    So very interesting.
    could it be, that the first woman died in childbirth.! Due to her having the headress of a married woman! intruiging !
    I enjoyed reading this post and as always find them fascinating.
    thank you Rosemary
    Have a good day
    val

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Dear Val - so pleased that you have found the painting interesting. As I mentioned it has confounded experts over the centuries, and so there is no specific explanation for many of the symbols within the painting.
      The dress to our eyes is confusing. As I mentioned it was to show wealth. Fabric, and in particular green fabric was rare and very expensive in the 15th century, and as I showed in the religious Dresden Triptych, it was the high fashion style of the day.
      Thanks Val for your very thoughtful comments.

      Delete
  2. So many symbols in one picture! What an artist that Van Eyck was. I mostly know him from 'Het Lam Gods' in Gent with the still missing part 'De rechtvaardige rechters', stolen long ago and until now never found back, all very mysterious. But that piece 'Het Lam Gods' is also full of symbolism.
    About this painting, I always thought the woman was pregnant..... Ok, now I'm off trying to find explanations for the symbols you didn't feel like explaining, not wanting us to become too lazy I guess ;-) Love it!
    Bye,
    Marian

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Dear Marian - thanks for your interesting comments in particular with regard to the Ghent Altarpiece. You have probably noticed that several of the women depicted on that look pregnant as he has put them in similar dresses. In particular the female martyrs coming to worship the lamb also look very pregnant, and the nude painting of Eve looks pregnant. It seems to have been a style of the day that was appealing to the eye whether pregnant or not.
      I look forward to your symbolism research - it can become quite addictive finding out the meanings.

      Delete
  3. The dog symbolizes loyalty, but could also symbolize the couple's desire to have a child or more simply their wealth, a bit like the oranges on the windowsill I guess.... and the lots of fabric the woman wore..... I also learned that on graves of men in that time there was often the image of a lion(strength) and on graves of women there was often a dog(loyalty)
    With 'rosary', do you mean the pearls, we call it 'paternoster', used for praying? They're crystal pearls, the crystal symbolizing purity and loyalty again. That was a common gift of a husband to his wife. It symbolizes work and pray, together with the brush that's also hanging there symbolizing domestic duties, work.
    Red bed hangings...... passion? Cosiness? Marriage?
    The green of the dress could symbolize 'hope', hope of becoming a mother.... It could also symbolize 'fertility'....
    Also found a whole explanation about the shoes. The woman's are slippers, worn inside of the house, the man's are 'trippen' or 'patijnen' (sorry, no English word for it) worn outside over the regular shoes to protect these from the mud and dirt in the streets. They look a bit like Japanese sandals. The slippers of the woman symbolize domesticity. The fact that the man's are outside shoes make them less valuable than the slippers and may symbolize that the woman was wealthier than the man????
    Read all this on the internet....
    Well, that was fun, and I'm a bit wiser again.
    Thanks for this 'quest' ;-)
    Bye,
    Marian

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Brilliant Marian - 10/10. I am glad that you found it fun. I find symbolism really interesting, and may be you will too after all of your hard work on this quest. In medieval times, ordinary man could not read, a privilege accorded to a few, the ordinary man could, however, still understand the symbols in the paintings and frescoes in the churches. It is an understanding that many of us have lost today.

      Delete
  4. Absolutely fascinating Rosemary, although I recognise the painting I am not familar with it. I love all the detailing and the translations you give.
    Based on your memorial theory, do you think perhaps we are being shown her life line within the palm of her hand?

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. That is a really interesting thought Paul and an idea that I like.

      Delete
  5. Dear Rosemary - I've enjoyed this sleuthing and that of Marian's, too! In any event, it is a beautiful painting, and I learned much here today! Save for Dali, I can't think of contemporary artists who enjoy this degree of symbolism . . .

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Dear Mark - I set a challenge and Marian rose beautifully to it, and seems to have enjoyed doing it. I am pleased that you enjoyed the sleuthing. Of course I cannot be sure whether my interpretation is correct, it needs Jan van Eyck to give it his seal of approval first.

      Delete
  6. It is amazing how much information you can get out of one painting. Even if it has not that many details.

    Greetings,
    Filip

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. The thing about this painting is that practically everything in it has a meaning.

      Delete
  7. I loved reading your interpretations of this famous painting, Rosemary. Thanks so much for a wonderful, thoughtful and intelligent (not to mention, beautiful) post. I too had always assumed this to be a marriage painting and the wife pregnant. Little did I know how wrong I was.

    I like your interpretation, it makes sense. I must admit I got a hint of goose bumps reading the translation of Van Eyck's signature line.

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Thank you so much Yvette, I am really pleased that you enjoyed the post. What a fantastic signature Jan van Eyck has, executed with such a complex flourish of swirls and curls.

      Delete
  8. A few things struck me about this painting since your fresh analysis made me take a closer look, although interpreting these would take a lot of research and searching for parallels. First is the position of the hands. The man seems to be displaying to woman's palm to the viewer, rather than holding her hand affectionately. (Maybe the palm lines mean something, although I am probably too focused on this after my recent post on the Hand knife.) His free hand is held up to her in an odd gesture--today it would mean "stop". Also, on her hand holding up the dress, the two rings are on the middle joints.

    You mentioned the two extra figures reflected in the mirror. Even if one is Van Eyck, that just begs the question of who the other one represents.

    Some of these details may be well understood, or they may require some examination. I very much enjoyed revisiting this painting, and I think you have helped to sharpen all of our eyes.
    --Road to Parnassus

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Dear Parnassus - this painting really requires a book there is so much in the painting that I have not touched upon. Both you and Paul have mentioned the hands.
      I understand that a new book is coming out at the end of September called Girl in a Green Gown, by Carola Hicks published by Chatto Windus. I shall treat myself to a copy and see if I can winkle out any more information, and whether or not some of my assumptions coincide with hers.
      The mirror confirms the presence of Van Eyck, but as you say, who is the other figure? It has been suggested that Arnolfini raising his right hand as he faces the visitors is perhaps a greeting to them, but it also appears to be a gesture of stop to the women as you say. I have read that his hand being vertically raised represents his commanding position of authority, whilst she has her hand in a lower horizontal more submissive pose. However, her gaze at her husband shows her equality to him because she is not looking down at the floor as lower class women would have done.
      I am not sure about the rings, but I do know that during that period they often wore them higher up on the finger, and although traditionally we wear wedding rings on the fourth finger of the left hand, I do not believe that has always been the case.
      Out of interest I have looked at a palm reading diagram, and the line shown on the painting is apparently the Line of Life!

      Delete
  9. Replies
    1. Thank you Larissa - pleased that you found it interesting.

      Delete
  10. Thank you for this information, your interpretation is so interesting!!! This painting is amazing and definitely has a very deeply intense feel. I always did think whe was pregnant, but I now see the folds of fabric… Wow, paintigns for this era are always so amazing… I adore Bosch!!!

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Dear Marica - I am happy that you enjoyed reading this interpretation and found it of interest. Paintings during that period were very much about conveying messages to the observer, and in particular the frescoed walls found in all of the churches at that time.

      Delete
  11. Hi Rosemary,

    Such a different post, but as an art lover I enjoyed it very much! I always thought the ladies, like the ones in the paintings you posted, were pregnant too :-) One is never too old to learn!

    Have a lovely evening,

    Madelief x

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Dear Madelief - it is a very common assumption that she was pregnant, I used to think so myself. Jan Van Eyck even painted his nude figures looking pregnant when they were not.
      Glad that you enjoyed the read, and hope that you also enjoyed your trip to the Cotswolds. I look forward to seeing your pictures in due course.

      Delete
  12. As with everyone else, you have prompted me to look at this familiar painting much more closely than ever before - a lesson I will not forget. Thank you!

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. What a lovely thing to say Nilly - thank you very much. Your kind comment is much appreciated, and so glad that you found the post interesting.

      Delete
  13. So, so interesting, Rosemary. First, I would have guessed the Mona Lisa as being analyzed and discussed more than this painting. Thanks for curating this painting for us. Next time I visit the National Gallery in London, I will have to show off what I've learned here ;)
    Loi

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Dear Loi - I happily concede to what you say, and have changed the first sentence to reflect that.
      These medieval paintings have so much symbolism in them that it is interesting to try and work out exactly what is going on. Hope you enjoy the painting, perhaps more, when next you see it.

      Delete
    2. Oh Rosemary that was just my guess.....totally not an expert or scholar here. What I love seeing in these paintings are the domestic / household items and furnishings. Especially beautiful objects such as the convex mirror.
      L

      Delete
    3. Not at all Loi, the point that you made was perfectly valid, and I was very happy to change the wording.
      I agree with you about all of the domestic details, I particularly like the shutters at the window, and the wooden floor and ceiling.

      Delete
  14. Hello Rosemary:
    We have never before considered the position of Christ's passion in the roundels to be found in this most magnificent painting before now. That we find fascinating, as we do your arguments for suggesting that this is, in fact, a 'Memorial' portrait.

    What is more your wonderful images add such clarity to the points which you make.

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. You probably realise that I have a strong interest in these medieval/renaissance paintings, but only from an amateur point of view. I have several books on signs and symbols which I am always delving into. One particular thing that I find interesting is the way we have lost the ability to read the paintings today. Understanding them would have been obvious to the ordinary medieval man, even though he could not read.

      Delete
  15. So much to see once you look... I wonder today's art is created with this much thought. Thank you for giving me so much to see and think about :)

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Dear Rosemary - I suppose that the big difference today is that art is much more spontaneous and speculative. In medieval times artists painted for wealthy donors or the church who had a big say in what they wished the paintings to show. For example often the patrons would have themselves painted alongside the Virgin Mary and Christ, or many of the saints in order to show how important and holy they were!!!
      So pleased that you enjoyed seeing the painting.

      Delete
  16. Fantastic story about this painting. I wish I knew as much as you do Rosemary.
    Beautiful post.
    Have a great evening.

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Dear Marijke - that is such a generous thing to say, but I really do not know all that much, it is simply that I have a passion for art and architecture. Oh! and of course not forgetting flowers.
      I am so pleased that you enjoyed reading about the images in the painting and their hidden meanings. Thank you for your lovely comment.

      Delete
  17. My thoughts are with you at the loss of a close friend, also thanks for this fascinating post which certainly provides food for thought. Please do not think we are going to be loosing touch as I am far from stopping blogging, posting and reading will be continuing but just I hope with a different balance, so no less or more posts for you to read, just in different places. This is why I ask you not to stop following one blog in favour of another but to add the additional one to your reading list. Thanks my friend, I hope this will work as I need to get this right somehow. :)

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Thank you for your kind thoughts, and glad that you found this post thought provoking.
      I shall bookmark your other site so that I can keep a check on it. Glad you are still going to be around, but in a slightly different way.

      Delete
  18. What an interesting and informative post.......I THOROUGHLY ENJOYED THIS!!!

    Jo

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Thank you Jo - it is definitely a picture with much more to it than first meets the eye - glad that you enjoyed it.

      Delete
  19. Dear Rosemary
    Thank you for today's lesson! I like painting and gardening and I can not resist to your posts! When I see the issue that you have , I go back to my library and I open my books. I read again about the issue that you have posted. Thank you so much for this . In today's issue, I read something extra. This painting was moved from Flanders to Spain and Velázquez used the emblem of the mirror in the famous painting Las Meninas.Thank you again for the knowledge you transmit to us ..
    Olympia

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Dear Olympia - I am touched that you found it sufficiently interesting that you got out your books to do some reading of your own about the picture. Thank you very much for the information about Velázquez, now I too must get out my books and have a look at Las Meninas. That is just the sort of knowledge that I like to know about. I appreciate your comments very much.

      Delete
  20. My dear Rosemary
    I apologize that I missed your posts. My youngest son impose mandatory 3-day break! He stayed in front of the computer because he missed for 10 days of vacation.
    Thanks a lot that you did the addition , but I'm not qualified to painting. Just like me, read about the history of art and great artists.When I visit a city, the first visit is to the art gallery. I like so much your post, I am very glad that I met you and your post are the most nice challenge for me.
    Olympia

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Dear Olympia - your son was right to impose a 3 day break, we can get too taken up with the computer - I know so well. It always does me good to go away from the computer for a time - it can be rather addictive, but it is so lovely being in touch with our blogging friends.
      Hope you were happy with the extra addendum to the post, and thank you for the interesting comment which took me on a search for Las Meninas♥

      Delete
  21. I can't attach with you by e-mail and I am writing here. Tomorrow I suggest you for a prize. They gave to me and I must give to another bloggers .
    Olympia

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. That is very kind of you Olympia.

      Delete
  22. Hi Rosemary:
    I stumbled on to your blog while helping give some ideas to my daughter for a paper on this painting. I must say that the memorial idea has a lot of merit given the dates and other clues.

    First let me add some info then comments.

    1. In the painting Las Meninas by Velázquez, I can assure you, as someone that has taught perspective to architecture students for nearly 2 decades, there is only one solution. The reflection must be the king and queen in the large vertical canvas. The perspective is very simple and straight forward in this painting, and I'm used to teaching reflection and cast shadows of curving shapes or inclined lines "walking" up stairs, etc., all in perspective (and even by freehand!).

    2. This van Eyke painting is full of contrasting pairs of things and symbols (like his and her shoes - hard v. soft, indoor/outdoor, etc.)
    a. Aesthetically, the composition contrasts the sweep of the line between their head and hands that continues, albeit less forcefully to create a circle. These are the strongest three items of the painting (their heads and hands together as they are the brightest and are all against very contrasting surfaces (his black hat [the highest contrast possible], their hands against a draped kneeling bench(??) and the red of the bed curtains.
    b. The circular mirror reinforces the original circle (from 2a.) Now note that almost all the remaining composition is about parallel vertical lines. The paired drape line of the clothing, the window mullions and the bed canopy vertical, the lines of the furniture with the brush the end of the "kneeing bench (??), the edge of the carpet the vertical end of the chest under the window, the vertical of the lamp holders, the 'rosary' beads, his hand and her fur edged 'cuff,' etc. Interestingly, most are not on the center vertical axis, but arranged in pairs either side. However, little occupies the centerline which tend to create pairs.
    c. The center focus of the painting is unusually high, about 80% up the painting, however the artist skillfully places a few visual horizontals to mediate this effect. I.e., his shoes, the fur edge a the bottom of his cloak, the dog and the horizontal folds of her dress on the floor.


    John Kendall Hopkins

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. I have now made an addendum to the post to reflect your comments re: the painting Las Meninas by Velázquez - thank you.

      Delete
  23. Also,

    3. The symbolism:
    a. I am not entirely convinced with the "not pregnant" argument. First, there is no way she could be holding the cloth, just look at her parallel fingers and upward thumb. despite other pregnant looks in other painting, Arnolfini's wife has the swaying back of the spine and the typical resting on the belly most typical of pregnant women. Additionally, her left hand and his right hand are both bright/ strong focus point giving them a very important place in the painting. We also have the contrasting vertical and horizontal line of each. As to the symbolism of this I need to introduce a proposition.
    b. That the medieval ideas of narrative in a single painting was at this time not yet dead. E.g., a single picture might show a monk drowned in a pool, him being pulled out and then being revived by a saint, ALL in ONE picture. I believe that is part of the solution here. This appears to be an actual wedding as vows were said. BUT the bride was not pregnant. This was the aspiration of the outcome of the marriage-heirs. I believe that the grooms right hand is both the civil swearing of an oath (of marriage) as well as the 'start position' of making the sign of the cross--blessing the marriage. Duality of meaning again. As many have noted, this was a hundred years of more before the church insisted in vow to a priest in a church, or even that the wedding vows be witnessed. (Forget your modern "stop" signal!) Making the sign of the cross gives extra legitimacy to the 'wedding' despite the absence of the church.
    c. The “vows” take place in a bedroom indicating the definition of Genesis of leave ones parents and “becoming one flesh.” The painting is both a ‘snapshot’ in time (the vows) and a 'narrative' of the coming ‘events’ of marriage. The bride is shown pregnant, however, this should not be read as her state at marriage, but part of a narrative of the future fruitful marriage.
    d. In fact, the color of the bed, all crimson, emphasizes the 'as now virgin' bride and the ‘future’ deflowering of the bride. The drape is already tucked up (prepared) indicates immanent use in consummate of the marriage, and in fact this act what made the marriage ‘legal,’ not the vows.The single apple on the windowsill symbolizes the ‘carnal’ side of marriage (Eros v. Agåpe or Philia), referring to the apple given by Eve to Adam (which resulted in “knowledge” (carnal) and awareness of their nakedness (their sexual nature)). The single apple (it looks to variegated to be an orange?) on the windowsill symbolizes the ‘carnal’ side of marriage (Eros v. Agåpe or Philia), referring to the apple given by Eve to Adam (which resulted in “knowledge” (carnal) and awareness of their nakedness (their sexual nature)). The three fruit (Trinity? Fruitfulness-Children are a gift from God?) below the window, symbolized virtue and honor (or a fruitful marriage, i.e., children) as more important than the carnal in the marriage relationship. Thus indicating the sacredness of the marriage bed, which although centered on a carnal act, is virtuous, and remained virtuous by its singularity and exclusivity between just the husband and wife. Although most believe the dog represents status (a rare expensive breed) or faithfulness, I believe it could refer to the future 'domestic life.'

    ReplyDelete
  24. Finally the hands.

    The bride has two rings (with diamonds) on her left hand (note: wedding rings in Europe go on the right hand) but she has no ring on her right hand, indicating that the vow and then the giving of a ring is JUST ABOUT to happen. For me one of the most important features of the painting is the two hand held. There is a tenderness about it seldom seen. He holds out his hand (open) offering himself to her. she responds and accepts by placing her hand in his, again open and upwards between his thumb and fingertips. There is an equality, tenderness and romance here, unexpected of those times. He does not clasp her hand. In fact either can let go at any time. The marriage is made legitimate and equal by the vow and sign of the cross, again the contrast united--the civil oath and the spiritual blessing.
    (Contrast this with a painting of a similar time, style and place, A Goldsmith in His Shop by Petrus Christus!) In "The Goldsmith," the fiancee appears to be flirting with the goldsmith and has her hand on his should in a provocative way while looking him in the eye in an expectant look. The groom to be meanwhile looks at her hand with disapproval and grasps his sword with his left hand and his fiancee shoulder with a strong grip! All while the Goldsmith gazes off into space. What a display of power/ownership and rebellion!!!

    Wonderful painting and great comments. Thanks.

    John Kendall Hopkins

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Hello John - I had only got half way through the first comment when your second and third came zinging in.
      Thank you for your critique and scholarship, and the time taken to comment so thoroughly. You are obviously more of an authority than I could ever be. My posts are tailored to suit the mainly amateur but interested readers of this blog.
      You have given me lots to mull over and think about. I shall come back to your comments in the future and look at them more thoroughly. In the meantime, I hope that your daughter's paper is a great success, and that she may have gleaned a little bit of help from this post.
      Incidentally I am sure you know that an orange is a symbol of free will.

      Delete
  25. This has always been one of my favourite paintings. I love it just as an image alone, the bright green of her dress, the shape of the shoes, the dog, the detail. But I have always wondered what it all symbolised as it clearly has several meanings. Thank you so much for all of this detail.

    I was a failure as an art student as I cannot draw at all, but I switched to history, textiles and colours instead. I remember studying paintings like Ophelia and the many meanings of the flowers and colours various artists used. I recall that green in general seemed to be the colour of hope, (as in Spring) perhaps the very bright fresh green of her dress symbolised her fertility and the hope of a child? Minerva x

    I cannot wait to look upon the painting again with new ideas! Minerva x

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Dear Minerva - so pleased that you enjoyed seeing the painting again, a long time favourite of mine too. The more you look at this painting the more you see.
      I am sure that you are right about the colour green. The Green colour was a very expensive fabric during that period and only worn by the wealthy.
      Green symbolises many similar attributes, the one you mentioned hope, fertility, bountifulness and strangely freedom from bondage.
      Thank you very much for your valuable contribution to the discussion.

      Delete
  26. Jan and Hubert Van Eyck born in my hometown, Maaseik. I am proud of.

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Thanks for letting me know that - you have every reason to be proud of him.

      Delete

❖PLEASE NOTE❖ Comments made by those who hide their identity will be deleted

“You can't stay in your corner of the forest waiting for others to come to you - you have to go to them sometimes”
― A.A. Milne, Winnie-the-Pooh